Study to evaluate correlation between immediate fetal outcome, cord blood pH and causes of fetal distress in low risk patients undergoing emergency caesarean section

Authors : Deepshikha Sahu, Varuna Pathak

DOI : 10.18231/j.ijogr.2019.073

Volume : 6

Issue : 3

Year : 2019

Page No : 337-341

Introduction: In recent years, Caesarean section rates are increased and mostcommon indication being
fetal distress. Fetal distress basically occurs due to fetal hypoxemia because of various reasons either
maternal or fetal cause. Thus, to know the immediate outcome of baby
delivered through caesarean section, umbilical cord blood pH has emerged out to be the best indicator of
fetal hypoxemia and to give the prognosis of baby delivered.
Aims and Objectives: To study the relation between cause of fetal distress and umblical cord blood pH. To
study the impact of different cause of fetal distress on immediate post partum baby delivered by emergency
caesarean section.
Materials and Methods: This study was a Cross-sectional observational study conducted during period
from 01.03.2017 to 28.02.2018 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SZ Hospital and Gandhi
Medical College, Bhopal. 270 patients Undergoing Emergency Caesarean Section for Fetal Distress
diagnosed clinically were selected in the Study during the study period. Data was collected as pre-designed
pre tested questionnaire of study variables. Blood collection was performed following delivery by caesarean
section, from immediately isolated segment (10 to 20 cm) of cord and sent for pH analysis via radiometer
ABL system 600.
Result: Distribution according to etiology of fetal distress, it was recognized that post dated pregnancy
were maximum 106(39.3%) (majority underwent induction of labour), oligohydroaminos secured second
position 74(27.4%). Relation between pH value and cause of fetal distress to the fetal outcome we found
out that, irregular rhythm heart rate babies (18 out 0f 270) had low pH value .i.e. <7> referrals to NICU and cause being abruption placenta.
Conclusion: The study concludes that decision of emergency caesarean section based on intermittent
auscultation of fetal heart rate during intrapartum correlates well with the final outcome and this correlation
being further confirmed by umbilical arterial cord pH.

Keywords: Fetal distress, Emergency caesarean section, Umbilical arterial cord blood pH, Abruptio placenta,
APGAR score.

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