Interventions required and outcome in pregnancy induced hypertension patients in Intensive Care Unit: An observational study

Authors : Omprakash Sundrani, Bhairavi T. Raghuveer, Kamal Kishore Sahare, Pratibha Jain Shah, Jaya Lalwani

DOI : 10.18231/j.ijca.2023.006

Volume : 10

Issue : 1

Year : 2023

Page No : 32-36

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia, eclampsia remain one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We studied the association between the risk factors, interventions required, diagnosis and outcome in these patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study after the Institutional Scientific and Ethics committee approval. The Institutional record was taken to identify 70 women with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) admitted to ICU after meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic details, indication and timing of ICU admission were noted. On ICU admission; baseline vitals, detailed history, duration of complications, therapeutic interventions, laboratory parameters and imaging were compiled. Maternal outcome was assessed in terms of interventions needed, complications encountered and mortality or discharge and follow up was done up to 6 weeks postpartum. Fetal outcome was assessed in terms of live births or Intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), Apgar score, term/preterm and followed up to 7 postnatal days. Result: It was observed that out of 70 women enrolled in our study, 48 women were diagnosed with preeclampsia, 54 belonged to the age group of 21-30 years, 61 were unregistered for antenatal checkup, 46 had term gestation, 52 were nulliparous and 64 underwent Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). 60 of them had postpartum ICU admission, all of them had significant rise in blood pressure. Most common interventions were transfusion of blood products (n=30) and mechanical ventilation (n=6). HELLP syndrome was the most common complication (n=7). Maternal mortality was seen in 6 women. 35 neonates had low birth weight, 6 had intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR), 19 were preterm and Apgar score was significant at 5 minutes. Conclusion: From our observations, it can be concluded that majority of the women were diagnosed with preeclampsia, were relatively of younger age group, nulliparous with no antenatal checkup, underwent LSCS and were admitted postpartum to ICU. Transfusion of blood products was the most common intervention & HELLP syndrome was most common complication. Maternal mortality was higher in women with preeclampsia although overall mortality was low. The incidence of low birth weight, IUGR and preterm neonates was more in eclamptic women. Neonatal mortality was more in preeclamptic women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hypertension, ICU, Maternal and fetal outcome.

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