Preeclampsia prediction –First trimester screening markers

Authors : Kaliki Hymavathi, Bhaavya Paturi, Duvvuru Akshitha, K Sravya

DOI : 10.18231/j.ijogr.2021.046

Volume : 8

Issue : 2

Year : 2021

Page No : 223-229

Background: Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder manifested primarily by hypertension and proteinuria during second half of pregnancy. It is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite decades of research into the condition, the ability of clinicians to predict preeclampsia prior to the onset of symptoms has not improved significantly. In this review we will look at potential biomarkers for early prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia.
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of different biochemical and biophysical markers in the early weeks of gestation as screening tools for early prediction of preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: This hospital-based prospective observational study conducted on 52 pregnant women, at less than 13 weeks of gestation were recruited. Maternal urine microalbumin, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and USG uterine artery PI levels were analyzed among the pregnant women who subsequently developed PE and compare with those who did not develop PE. Methods used for the detection of markers are: immunoturbidimetric method for urine albumin, modified kinetic Jaffe reaction
without deproteinization for Urine creatinine and Uterine artery Doppler velocimetry was done by PHILIPS HD11XE transabdominal ultrasound machine using a 4-6 MHz probe with the same sonographer.
Results: In the present study, spot urine microalbumin and spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) at 11-13 were significantly higher in women who developed PE subsequently when compared to nonpreeclamptic women.(P<0> delivery and neonatal outcome (neonatal birth weight and APGAR) with preeclampsia. The maternal urine microalbumin, albumin to creatinine ratio, and uterine artery PI found to have good sensitivity and specificity for early prediction of PE.
Conclusion: Study concluded that the women who are prone to develop PE subsequently, had high levels of MAP, UAPI, microalbuminuria and urine albumin to creatinine ratio than the normotensive women. In our setting, MAP, UAPI, microalbuminuria, and UACR markers appeared to be better screening modalities. The combination of biochemical markers with the biophysical markers, demographic characteristics, and other novel markers will establish the effective screening models for early prediction of PE. Early identification of high-risk cases will offer an opportunity for prophylactic therapy, such as Low- dose
Aspirin in selected groups of high-risk women screened in the first trimester, thus improving the maternal and perinatal outcome.

Keywords: Pregnancy induced hypertension, Colour doppler ultrasonography, Antioxidants.

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