Maternal and Neonatal risk factors in retinopathy of prematurity: A study from coastal city in south India

Authors : Anupama B, Rashmi Jain, Rashmi S, Vidya Hegde, Shyam Sudhir

DOI : 10.18231/j.ijooo.2021.060

Volume : 7

Issue : 3

Year : 2021

Page No : 294-298

Introduction: Preterm babies often suffer from various systemic illnesses and struggle for survival in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). These preterm babies are at risk of developing ROP which is a potentially blinding condition. The presence of predisposing maternal and neonatal factors contributes for the development of ROP. Determining the association of risk factors with the development of ROP is essential in improving the screening and management of ROP.
Aim: To determine maternal, neonatal risk factors and influence of retinal immaturity at first screening for development of ROP.
Settings and design: Prospective, observational study conducted at a level of 3 PICU & department of ophthalmology.
Methods and Materials: All the preterm infants with gestational age ? 37 weeks admitted in NICU were first screened by 2 to 3 weeks of chronological age and followed up till the completion of retinal vascularization and regression of ROP following treatment. The zone of retinal vascularization at first screening and various maternal and neonatal risk factors were noted.
Results: Out of 166 babies screened, 18.67% progressed to ROP. Of the 36 babies with immature retina 58% developed ROP, while 7.7% neonates with mature retina developed ROP. Gestational age, birth weight, retina immaturity, respiratory distress syndrome and anaemia of prematurity were statistically significant for ROP.
Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to identify the association of risk factors with the development of ROP. Each risk factor was analyzed by univariate & multivariate logistic regression.
Conclusions: Low birth weight, low gestational age, immature retina and neonatal risk factors have a significant influence on the development of ROP.
Key Messages: Low birth weight, low gestational age and retinal immaturity are important risk factors for Retinopathy of prematurity.

Keywords: Immature retina, Gestational age, Birth weight, Neonatal/maternal risk factors, Retinopathy of prematurity

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